Monday, January 12, 2009

50 Common Linux Console Commands You Should Learn

I have listed below 50 commonly used Linux / Unix commands that we think every geek should learn by heart. These commands are vital for your complete access to Shells and Consoles.  Print them out. Hang them near your monitor. Practice them. Only constant practice will let you retain the usage and utility of all these console commands. Enjoy the list.

  1. clear: Clears the terminal window
  2. ls directory: List contents of a directory
  3. cat filename: Displays the contents of a file in the terminal
  4. rm filename: Removes a file
  5. cp sourcefile detstinationfilename: Copies a file
  6. passwd: Changes password
  7. motd: Message of the Day
  8. finger username: User information lookup program
  9. startx: Starts an X Window System server
  10. less filename or more filename: Displays the contents of a file in the terminal one page at a time
  11. info: Displays information and documentation on shells, utilities and programs
  12. lpr filename: Sends file to printer
  13. grep string filename: looks through files for strings
  14. head filename: Displays first 10 lines of file
  15. tail filename: Displays last 10 lines of file
  16. mv existingfilename newfilename: Moves or renames file
  17. file filename: Displays information about file contents
  18. echo string: Copies string to terminal
  19. date: Displays current date and time
  20. cal: Displays calendar
  21. gzip filename: Compresses a file
  22. gunzip filename: Decompresses a compressed file
  23. which command: Displays path to command
  24. whereis command: Displays paths to locations of commands
  25. who: Lists currently logged on users
  26. finger username@hostname: Obtains detailed information about a user currently using the system
  27. w: Lists currently logged on users with processing usage
  28. mesg y/n: Sets options for letting other users write you messages
  29. write user: Sends message to other users
  30. talk user: Allows two way chat to other users
  31. chmod permissions filename: Changes file access permissions
  32. mkdir directoryname: Makes a directory
  33. rmdir directoryname: Removes an empty directory
  34. ln existingfile new-link: Creates link to an existing file (hard link)
  35. df: Displays all mounted filesystems
  36. top: Displays updating list of currently running processes
  37. tty: Displays the name of the terminal in which the command was issued
  38. kill PID or %job number: Aborts a process by PID (Process Identification Number) or job number
  39. jobs: Displays a list of current jobs
  40. netstat: Displays network connections
  41. traceroute host: Prints the route packets take to the host
  42. nslookup: Queries Internet domain name servers
  43. hostname: Displays system identity name
  44. rlogin host: Utility to connect to a remote system
  45. telnet host: Utility to connect to a remote system (similar to rlogin but more interactive)
  46. rcp file remotemachine: Used to copy from a remote computer
  47. ftp: Utility to transfer files between systems on a network
  48. rsh command: Utility to run a command on a remote system without logging in
  49. ping host: Utility used to test connection to a remote system
  50. lcd directorypath: Changes local machine directory while logged on to remote machine

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